An active and passive dichotomy of resistance is generally understood as two opposite forms of resistance, which tells about the “activity of resistance” . Pincus (2000) relates passive resistance mainly to the act of “being silent” while active resistance is mainly associated with “subversive action”.
Active resistance points at the ways in which one takes action to prevent an implementation whereas passive resistance corresponds to the behavior of non-doing. Passive forms of resistance weaken the change/implementation with not taking an action, which results in non-cooperativeness and ignorance.
Hultman (2003) listed the signs of those behaviors corresponding to active resistance as being critical, fault finding, ridiculing, blaming/ accusing, blocking, manipulating, raising objections, etc. Passive resistance, according to him, referred mainly to such behaviors as agreeing verbally, but not following through, dragging feet, withholding information, suggestions, help, standing by and allowing the change to fail, etc.
For recording the resistance cases in FESTA activities we defined active resistance as specific actions that aim to prevent an implementation and passive resistance as the act of withdrawal from an action to prevent it.
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